Real-time image guidance is necessary for monitoring the growth of the tissue coagulation zone created during microwave ablation (MWA). MWA monitoring with ultrasound, MRI, or computed tomography poses challenges in terms of accuracy, safety, portability, and cost; these challenges motivate the development of integrated microwave technology for simultaneously ablating a malignant tumor and monitoring the therapeutic response. The rationale for microwave monitoring of MWA is two-fold. First, microwave monitoring can take advantage of not only the temperature dependence of tissue dielectric properties at microwave frequencies, but also the large contrast between ablated and non-ablated tissue. Second, microwave monitoring can exploit the presence of the interstitial MWA antenna, using it as a local sensor or internal transmitter to obtain information-rich microwave signals sourced right at the site of the ablation. This talk will focus on recent progress towards the integration of MWA with real-time microwave monitoring, specifically in the context of breast cancer treatment.